VOICES Voices Icon Ideas and Insight From Explorers


So many consumers. Could there be a silver lining?

Is there a positive side to consumption?

One of our Great Energy Challenge advisers, Dan Kammen, of the World Bank and UC Berkeley, raised that thought in a brainstorming session on questions to ask the panelists here at Aspen Environmental Forum 2011. The sessions are focused on the strain on the planet as population nears 7 billion.

I wasn’t sure I understood how consumption ever could be an advantage in the search for environmental solutions—but now that I was listening for it, I began hearing examples.

At a session on clean coal (entitled “Oxymoron or Salvation?”), Jim Rogers, the outspoken chief executive of Duke Energy, talked about his company’s two partnerships in China—with the nation’s largest utility, Huaneng Group, and with the private company, ENN Group. As I’ve heard Rogers say before, he believes that it is in China that the technology will be developed to make carbon capture work in electric power. With so many consumers and so much growing consumption, China is spurred to innovate to find a coal solution at large scale.

“They are scaling because they have an economic imperative to provide universal access to electricity,” Rogers said. “As a consequence, I believe they are creating what I would characterize as the intellectual property of scaling. That is probably a more powerful (intellectual property) than the technology itself.”

In the United States, Rogers said, we don’t feel that impetus; we already had our drive for innovation to provide universal access to electricity more than 50 years ago.

Another example is the work of MIT researcher Daniel Nocera, who has developed a technology for storing solar power using artificial photosynthesis. In our small group at dinner, he talked about how he was working to do the field testing in India. With 500 million people who still have no electricity, India has a huge market, need and opportunity to test and deploy this technology in the field.  (See Nocera’s work in a photo gallery on solar energy in National Geographic magazine.)

Of course, the breakthroughs that Nocera, Duke, or any other innovators realize in the testing ground of the developing world can be brought back to make life better and energy cleaner in the developed world. In that way, our lack of need is a kind of impoverishment. And that’s one way that for new technology development, consumption can be an advantage.


  1. Daniel Kammen
    June 1, 2011, 11:56 am

    Interesting post! Here’s an added example from Nicaragua:

    (Reference: Casillas, C. and Kammen, D. M. (2010) “The Energy-Poverty-Climate Nexus,” Science, 330, 1182 – 1182.

    The provision of both electrical and mechanical energy services can play a critical role in poverty alleviation for the almost two billion rural users who currently lack access to electricity. Distributed generation using diesel generators remains the common means of electricity provision for rural communities throughout the world. Due to rising costs, reliability concerns, and consequences of global warming, there are a number of advantages to developing cost efficient means of reducing fossil fuel consumption in isolated diesel mini-grids. Based on a case study in Nicaragua, a set of demand and supply side measures are ranked via an energy supply curve. While some aspects of the supply curve may be unique for the particular community that was examined, the supply curve clearly demonstrates the significant opportunities for reducing the costs of energy services while also transitioning to a carbon-free power system. It is critical to focus on demand side measures for residential and public lighting as well as residential metering, all of which can be carried out with costs of conserved energy less than 0.05 $/kWh and $30/tCO2.
    Orinoco and Marshall Point are two neighboring villages situated on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, with populations of roughly 850 and 300 people, respectively. In the village of Orinoco there is a three-phase 110 kW diesel generator. Two of the phases are distributed within the village, with the third phase connecting the village of Marshall Point, located 3 km away. The distribution system provides power to a total of 186 clients, administered by the national electric company (ENEL). As of August 2009, the system received a monthly allotment of 4540 liters of diesel fuel, and the plant was operated 12 hours every day, running from 12 pm to 12 am.
    The installation of the meters resulted in a 28% reduction in the electricity load, and the installation of CFLs resulted in an additional 17% load reduction. Measurements of the load profiles before and immediately after the meter installation, as well as following the installation of the CFLs, are shown in the figure below. Following the diesel saving which resulted from the meter installation, grid operation was increased two more hours, to twelve hours per day.
    What we found was that by working to increase the energy supply through efficiency and by developing a community mini-grid, the unmet demand for energy services — consumption — became a driver of low-carbon development.

    (Related National Geographic story: “Fighting Poverty Can Save Energy, Nicaragua Project Shows”