By Monika Freyman, Manager, Water Program, Ceres
This post is the first in a two-part series from Monika Freyman, Manager in Ceres’ water program on hydraulic fracturing, water supplies and energy development.
Boarding a puddle jumper in Dallas, I picked up a copy of USA Today and opened to the headline“Wealth Rises in the USA’s Heartland.” It was a fitting start to my trip to Midland, Texas. As it turns out, my final destination had reported the second highest per capita income in the nation. Only the bankers of Stamford, Connecticut, were making more money than the average Midlander in 2011.
If you have been following the energy sector as closely as I have, you might have guessed the cause: oil. The U.S. is in the midst of an energy boom, with the International Energy Agency predicting that the U.S. will be almost self-sufficient in energy by 2035. The country’s resurgence in oil and gas production is largely attributed to advances in drilling technologies, most prominently hydraulic fracturing, which has unlocked shale oil and gas resources previously thought unrecoverable.
Over the past several months, my colleague Ryan Salmon and I have been researching the effect of hydraulic fracturing on water resources. Our goal is to assess the potential risks associated with this industrial process and inform investors in Ceres’ Investor Network on Climate Risk on the water risks and issues they may face in specific regions, across the many stages of the water lifecycle. I was on my way to see this phenomenon firsthand in Midland, a city of roughly 100,000 inhabitants that sits in the middle of the Permian Basin in Western Texas.
Hydraulic fracturing has quite literally changed the American landscape. As the airplane descended, I could see dozens of well pads dotting the horizon (see photo). The airport walls were lined with advertisements for drilling gloves, pipe lubricants, and other specialty products. I would not have been surprised to see a rig in the middle of the runway.
At dinner that night, I struck up a conversation with a waitress named Anna. She told me how the Midland community had changed during the latest rush. Hotels are full, food prices are rising and specialized labor is hard to come by. Hiring a contractor can take up to a year, as demand for skilled labor has skyrocketed along with the boomtown economy.
While she agreed that oil had been a boon to many local businesses, Anna told me that sudden wealth had left the community divided. Those with family members working in the industry feel the boom is a blessing; those that do not feel otherwise as they face the burden of local inflation with no income upside. Others are feeling the pressure in their rents. A house on Anna’s block that used to rent for $600/month two years ago now rents for $1,600. Midland had been through boom times before, she reminded me. The key is to remember that a bust always follows.
For the moment at least, Midland is flush. By my estimates, an owner of one section of land (640 acres) can make between $500,000 to $2,500,000 on just the lease of the land to oil drillers before taking into account any additional income from royalties once the oil starts to flow. This bonanza can be divisive in this region, as ownership of the subsurface minerals sometimes rests in one set of hands, while the ownership of the land rests in another. In that case, a mineral rights-owner reaps a significant financial benefit, while the surface owner has none.
Though Midland has quickly realized the value of its land, the community’s approach to valuing and managing its already scarce water supplies has lagged behind the boom. Hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive practice, and citizens and local businesses are now competing with the oil industry for increasingly scarce freshwater supplies.
I grew up in region with many similarities to Midland—southern Alberta—which is equally flat as a pancake and also prone to drought-like conditions. Unlike Midland, southern Alberta can source some of its water from the nearby Rocky Mountains and seasonal snowpack. Midland, on the other hand, relies heavily on groundwater, increasingly so after all but one of its surface reservoirs dried up during the drought of 2011.
The precipitous decline of the city’s water supply didn’t seem to be the result of the thirst of a growing population—everyone seemed to drink bottled water, due to some issues with the taste. But the resulting credit downgrade of the town’s water authority clearly illustrates the need for better water management. Midland is far from the only town affected by this phenomenon, and is the topic of a recent Ceres white paper on credit trends in the water sector.
These water-related tensions fueled by the town’s economic lifeblood—the oil and gas industry—are likely to define the coming years in Midland. In my next post, Ryan and I will describe our experience on-site at a hydraulic fracturing operation, where all of these issues intersect.