Brilliantly colored monarch butterflies literally are what they eat—and missing even one meal can be harmful, a new study says.
New experiments show that the insects‘ vibrant colors are the result of a good diet as larvae—and that just 24 hours without food can significantly dull a butterfly’s colors, which can range from yellow to nearly red, said study leader Andrew Davis, an ecologist at the University of Georgia in Athens.
The effects aren’t just aesthetic, either. Food deprivation as larvae also leads to smaller wings, which means the butterflies take longer to make their 3,000-mile (4,800-kilometer) migration, according to laboratory experiments published April 2 in the journal PLOS ONE.
Every autumn, millions of monarchs fly south and west from southern Canada and the United States to the forests of the Mexican states of Michoacan and Mexico, stopping at sites along the way to breed and feed—a process that spans five generations. After spending the winter in Mexico, a new generation of insects begins the long journey northward toward the U.S.-Canada border.
But this famous trek is in “grave danger,” according to a recent report showing that monarch colonies in Mexico now occupy the smallest area since records began in 1993. That’s in part due to the widespread loss of a plant called milkweed, which was once ubiquitous in North America but is declining due to agriculture and development. (Read about the discovery of the monarchs’ winter home in a 1976 issue of National Geographic magazine.)
Adult butterflies lay their eggs only on milkweed, and once the caterpillar emerges, it feeds on the milkweed plant until it becomes a butterfly. But if the larvae don’t have enough milkweed to eat, that’s when the problems begin. (Watch video: “Monarchs and Milkweed.”)
Sylvia Fallon, a senior scientist at the National Resources Defense Council in Washington, D.C., who was not involved with the study said, “Although the researchers did the study in the lab and not in the wild, it appears possible that the loss of milkweed could affect their ability to migrate.”
On the Wing
Davis and colleagues knew that restricting food during the larval stage affected both color and size in other butterfly species.
To find out if monarchs experience similar impacts, the team split monarch larvae into three different groups in the lab. One group had no access to food for 24 hours, one lacked food access for 48 hours, and a control group had access to food. The larvae were otherwise allowed to develop into adult butterflies. (Watch a video of monarch butterflies.)
The results revealed the larvae that went without food for 24 hours developed into butterflies with smaller wings than the insects in the control group. Predictably, the group deprived of food for 48 hours had even smaller wings than the 24-hour group.
Just a small decrease in wing size can add up to a major delay during a journey of thousands of miles, Davis noted. (Read more about great migrations.)
For instance, the butterflies with the largest wings tend to lead the way in the fall migration southward, and the first butterflies to arrive in Mexico have wings that are one to two percent longer than the wings of the rest of the migrators, research has shown.
Beyond the Pale
Davis and colleagues also analyzed the butterflies’ wing color by scanning their wings and analyzing color hues and saturation in Photoshop.
The monarchs that went without food for 24 hours became a paler orange than those in the other two groups, a decrease in color that the authors said was statistically significant. (See more monarch pictures.)
However, those butterflies that went hungry for two days did not lose color, which Davis and his team plan to investigate.
“Our guess is that the butterflies took the energy they normally put into growing their wings and used it to make color. We’re currently testing this idea,” Davis said.