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The Historic Corbelled Houses of the Karoo in South Africa

Picture of South African Karoo corbelled house
A South African Karoo corbelled house. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

As you drive along one of the traveler’s routes through the Karoo region of South Africa, you’ll often see vast swathes of nothing but stone and hard ground.

Occasionally, just to break the rocky landscape, there might be an outcrop of trees. Beefwoods, pepper trees, olives, eucalypts, salt bushes, and conifers are all visible from time to time. However, they were brought in by settlers over the centuries.

corbelled house on Langbaken Farm, Northern Cape, South Africa
In parts of the Northern Cape, the first farm building was usually a corbelled house. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

When the first white trekboere (migrant stock farmers) established their seasonal outposts in the Northern Cape Karoo in the early 1800s, they needed to build dwellings and granaries to protect their families and stores from the harsh climes.

Apart from the odd riverside Acacia karroo tree and millions of knee-high fragrant bushes, there was little wood to be found. There was, however, no shortage of dolerite and sandstone and so the corbelled house became the architectural style of the day.

Cozy and Safe

The houses provided excellent shelter. The six-metre-high ceilings and thick walls were cool in summer, and the rocks held the heat of the sun in winter.

Plus, you could make a fire inside. All you needed for a chimney was to climb up the rock-scaffolding and remove the topmost flat stone.

ceiling of corbelled house, Northern Cape, South Africa
The intricate geometic layering of rocks make up the ceiling of a corbelled house. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

Window openings were small, specifically to restrict the effects of Bushman arrows during attacks on the settlers, which were quite frequent at the beginning of the 19th century.

You still see them out there in what is known as the Upper Karoo: raw stone or white-washed igloos built from perfectly balanced flat stones. Some have been abandoned, others have been lovingly restored and do duty as self-cater guest houses on family farms.

Once you’re in the Carnarvon-Williston district, the horizons are so wide, the road is so never-endingly straight that you feel you’re in the Faraway Country.

You’re miles from nowhere, as the song goes, and you’re staying over in a 200-year-old corbelled house with paraffin lamps and an outdoors shower kept warm by a wood-burning ‘donkey’ stove.

corbelled house at sunset in the Karoo, South Africa
A corbelled house on Osfontein Farm in the Northern Cape. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

Relive the Frontier Days

On Stuurmansfontein Farm outside Carnarvon, you light the candles and relive the frontier days when bywoner (tenant farmer) Fanie Bergh and his clan thrived here.

By all accounts, the Berghs (who worked for the farm owners, the Bothas) wanted for very little. They planted a wide variety of fruit trees, a windpump supplied the water and heritage roses surrounded the homestead.

They laid out fruit to dry, protected by a low stone wall to keep hungry tortoises out.

wheat threshing area, Northern Cape farm
The stone wheat-threshing kraal and corbelled store room at Stuurmansfontein, Northern Cape. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

The Bergh family was locally famous for their great coffee, and the secret lay in the dried figs that were crushed into the beans before roasting.

Fresh mutton cuts were stored in the coolest spot in the house: under the marital bed. The floors were made of mud and dung.

When the Berghs planted wheat, they would separate the grain from the chaff on the threshing floor about 200 yards down the hill, storing the grain in another special little purpose-built corbelled house.

Their recorded lifestyle offers up one major lesson to the modern visitor. It’s possible to live healthily and happily off the grid, but you need to know a lot of stuff—like how to build a corbelled house.

Corbelled House Mystery

No one really knows how this ancient Mediterranean style of architecture arrived here in South Africa’s version of the Outback.

Some say it must have been a trader or a sailor from Malta or Portugal who built the first Karoo corbelled house.

They speculate that this skill was then passed on to the indigenous Khoi-Khoi. Their clientele would have been the families of trekboers constantly swirling about the region.

Stuurmansfontein Farm, Northern Cape
Stuurmansfontein Farm – this corbelled house is now a very popular self-cater facility for travelers. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

Around Williston, people still speak of ‘Tiensjielings’ (Ten Shillings) and ‘Gedaanwerk’ (Done With Work), two men of Khoi-Khoi origin who built superb corbelled houses on the farms Schuinshoogte and Arbeidersfontein.

Others say the trekboers came up with the corbelled house concept by themselves. The records are unclear.

Out here in the flat lands, it was simply a case of the self-reliant boers using what whatever was available around them.

They’d stash their tobacco and medicine in recessed ‘keep holes’, and when times were good, they built adjoining kitchens, or more rooms.

And they were blessed with the finest TV you could ever watch: Channel One, featuring the all-round night stars of the Upper Karoo.

karoo sunset, Northern Cape, South Africa
Karoo sunsets – part of your package when you stay overnight in a Northern Cape corbelled house. (Photograph by Chris Marais, Karoo Space)

Comments

  1. David
    Stellenbosch
    July 12, 2014, 1:56 am

    Dankie Chris, dit bring soveel lekker herinneringe terug van die jare wat ons in daai omgewings navorsing gedoen het!! Jammer baie het ook verval op van die verlate plase!!!

    • Chris Marais
      July 13, 2014, 11:25 pm

      Dankie David – Ons hoop dat meer plase hul korbeelhuise sal omskep in gastehuisies. Beste, Chris

  2. bridget wijnberg
    Cape Town
    June 30, 2014, 7:03 am

    Nice article Chris. Love the ending 😉

  3. Truida Prekel
    Muizenberg, Kaapstad
    June 27, 2014, 2:55 am

    Dankie vir ‘n pragtige storie wat ons weer help om ons kultuurgoed meer te waardeer, en wat dit ook met die wye wereld deel.

    • Chris Marais
      June 27, 2014, 3:16 am

      Dankie Truida – lekker dag vir julle in die Kaap. Beste, Chris

  4. Lara Lorentz
    Port Nolloth
    June 26, 2014, 4:24 am

    Reminiscent of Malian architecture non?

    • Chris Marais
      June 26, 2014, 4:49 am

      Hi Lara
      Visually – definitely. The Malian scaffolding is made of wood and embedded in mud, however. The Karoo corbelled house scaffolding is stone into stone. Have a wonderful “Port Jolly” day and may the diamonds all run your way.

  5. Leoni Benghiat
    South Africa
    June 26, 2014, 2:34 am

    Pragtige artikel, Chris! Baie interessant en lekker gelees.

    • Chris Marais
      June 26, 2014, 2:42 am

      Dankie Leoni. Lekker dag verder.

  6. Spike
    palos verdes california
    June 26, 2014, 12:41 am

    The corbelled house is the perfect semi desert structure. Who needs a modern glass structure that you constantly need to cool or heat?

    • Chris Marais
      June 26, 2014, 12:47 am

      Thank you Spike. It sounds like you have some experience in the construction business. Have a good evening out at Palos Verdes. Warm greetings from a wintry Karoo.

  7. laureen rossouw
    kaapstad
    June 26, 2014, 12:29 am

    hallo Chris
    dit is so interessant.Kan mens in een vd huise tuisgaan of oorbly en hoeveel is daar nog.

    • Chris Marais
      June 26, 2014, 12:37 am

      Hallo Laureen
      Dankie vir die kommentaar. ‘n Mens kan by Stuurfontein en Osfontein bly (ek beveel beide aan) – hul details is op die Carnarvon site.

  8. Cecil Jones
    Cradock/Thornhill, Eastern Cape, South Africa
    June 26, 2014, 12:00 am

    Well done Chris!!! A most interesting article, just loved it. The Karoo is so special.

  9. Juliette
    Oudtshoorn. Klein Karoo. South Africa
    June 25, 2014, 10:57 pm

    Awesome article! Lots of interesting history. The Karoo is so beautiful. Love living here.

    • Chris Marais
      June 25, 2014, 11:17 pm

      Thanks Juliette – much appreciated.