VOICES Voices Icon Ideas and Insight From Explorers


Genographic Scientists Trace the Origins of Europe’s Roma

by Amy Werner

The European Roma are the largest ethnic minority in Europe, numbering more than 10 million people dispersed across the continent. Roma groups have a distinct culture and language, different from their non-Roma neighbors, suggesting a common origin generally placed in South Asia. However, little is known about their deep history and the events that took place during their migration from India through Persia, Armenia, Turkey, to the Balkans, and their eventual spread across Europe.

Gypsies at the Ponorita, Romania gyspy settlement. Photo by Alexandra Avakian
A Roma group at the Ponorita, Romania gyspy settlement. Photo by Alexandra Avakian

To learn more about Europe’s Roma, Genographic Project researcher David Comas and his team worked with 753 Roma and 984 non-Roma to better understand their genetic influence on the European gene pool. The study took place over several years and across Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine and Spain. Results ultimately revealed high sharing of male and female lineages from European non-Roma to the Roma population, and a much less in the opposite direction.

The Genographic study showed that more than 40% of Roma men belonged to the South Asian haplogroup H (or branch of the human family tree), while fewer than 1% of non-Roma belonged to that haplogroup. Similarly, South Asian mitochondrial haplogroup M accounted for 23% of the Roma, but was nearly absent in non-Roma groups. What’s more? Lineage matching showed the most probable homeland for the European Roma was northwest India. Yet, Comas’ team found few distinct founder lineages among the Roma, suggesting it was likely a single wave of migration from India to Europe.

Genographic Project migration map for Y Chromosome haplogroup H in India.
Genographic Project Migration Map for Y Chromosome Haplogroup H in India.

Once in Europe, the Roma spread from the Balkans. To show this, Comas and his team looked at the correlation between geographic distances and genetic diversity and found that lineages showed a negative correlation between diversity and geographic distances from southeastern Europe. In other words, lineages were more diverse in the Balkan Peninsula, but diversity decreased with distance from there.

Their study was one of the first to look a Roma populations across the continent, and in doing so they were able to place their origin in the Northwest corner of India more than 1,000 years ago. To learn more about this and other Genographic Project studies visit www.genographic.com.


  1. Carmen
    December 15, 2016, 6:36 pm

    Dear Kiri,Miguel & everyone else ,

    Its seems such a shame to lose suck a beautiful word. To me it will never mean anything but music.

    The soviet socialist rule forced my mum to deny her own heritage just to ‘fit in’. Yet all her life she was discriminated against because of her skin colour. She worked an office job and did what any other white Romanian did, yet not good enough when you have chocolate colur skin and green eyes (yes she is beautiful if you are now wondering). I grew up being constantly told being by her that gypsy is a bad thing – yet it never stuck.

    The gypsy/ tsigan / jitan/ rom music whatever you want to call it has emotions running through every note. It created such a strong culture that despite all attempts (from those envious at the people’s ability to savour life and be free – the world is my home) it has never been broken. It never will. Yes there are times when to feed and survive some have resorted to unethical practices such as stealing someone’s purse – but isn’t this how Australia was created. Poor people stealing bread and the likes. As no room in prison, the catholic church moved them to the dutch discovered island. I think we need not hide and we need not continue the persecution and lies. We should all be strong enough to face that all people of the world, in the recently created concept of nations and countries (post industrial), have a mixture of human traits – and those we do no approve of we incarcerate. Do not all countries have prisons? I am digressing. Lets try celebrate being us, human, fallible! — and LESS PIGEONHOLING even if it is in the name of science. It so WWII SS doctor experiment its sickening.
    NB Sorry if you are a young person who was not a nazi. I know you do not have the same intentions. Careful you are not also being lied to.

  2. Udaya
    September 23, 2016, 11:37 pm

    Most Lithuanians are R1a1 group as against Romas.If Romas are welcome in India Lithuanians who bear the defining Y chromosomal haplogroup of Sindhi Saraswathi civilization should be most welcome in Bharathawarsha

  3. John
    August 1, 2016, 8:49 pm

    To “Levas” from Lithuania:
    I am not surprized that you, being a Lithuanian and a former Sovjet citizen who lived in isolation for so many years, are expressing such offensive and racist prejudice against other people. You see skin colours but you are blind to see human beings. This project has a humanity mission and has no place for people like you who are bigoted. Come from your little Lithuania and see the world.

  4. Adrian
    May 20, 2016, 4:46 pm

    I realize, but i curious (please correct me if i were wrong) when almost all of human ethnic groups, except the Pacific Islanders, have strong “Indigenous” Maternal Mitochondrial Haplogroups rather than Y Chromosome Haplogroups. Including Romani people in Europe Y Hg H*-M52 and mtDNA Macrohaplogroup M*, perhaps mtDNA Hg M3, M4, M5, M6,….. Southern and Northern “Han” Chinese Y Hg O2-M122, O2-JST002611, O2-P201 +P164 +M134 +M117 +M133, share a common Paternal ancestors with Southeast Asian Paternal line, Y Hg O1b1-M256 +M95 +M88, Y Hg O1a1-M119, and so on. All of them share a common ancestors from Y Hg NO*-M214 (K2a) and O*-M175. But, majority of Northern “Han” Chinese have quite different Maternal line ancestors than Southern “Han” Chinese and Southeastern Asian like Malaysians, Indonesian Malay, Filipino, Vietnamese, Cambodian, etc. They are, NE Asians or Native Siberians people have “Coastal Clan” or “Indus Valley – Central Asian” ancestors mtDNA Hg M7, M8, CZ, C, Z, M9, “E?”, M10, M11, G (M Type) and Paternal Y Chromosome Hg D1, D2-M55, D3, C*-M130, especially Y Hg C2-M217, Manchurian and Tungusic C2-M48. On USA, African American have at least 30% “European and Middle Eastern” Y Hg R1b-M343, R1a-M17 or Y Hg I*M170, I1a, I2a, I2b, etc. But African American have quite rare “West Eurasians” Maternal line (less than 2%) an mtDNA Hg N*, N1a, X (N Type) and R0, H, V, JT, J, T, U and K (N-R Type). It seems when majority Women have less mobility than Men so an mtDNA Haplogroups together with an Autosomal DNA are more represant “More Indigeneous” or ” Native” peoples all around the world. Maybe…..

  5. Levas
    May 6, 2016, 6:41 am

    All those talks about naming is something too “american”. You can not call negro, you can not call gypsy… In my language black africans are “negrai”, and all roma are “čigonai”. I do not want new invented names. If you want to change attitude to your people, just change yourself, not surrounding people. If gypsies were local criminals for several hundred years, try to be good for next two hundred years and nobody will not complain. If you change your name to “roma” and still control the largest drug dealer spot in my city, you will not change my attitude.

  6. Parshu Narayanan
    Gurgaon Haryana India
    May 2, 2016, 5:57 am

    I live in that part of my country where the Roma are from 15 centuries back when Bahman, the Persian king invited 10,000 Indian singer-dancer nomads and it began a journey that still continues – a journey to find acceptance.
    India is a poor, poor country today – but were growing at as steady tick and in a couple of decades will have the third largest economy in the world ( after the US and China)
    That’s when I will welcome the Roma to leave Europe, and carrying the rich culture of music and dance ( the flamenco is from an Indian dance form for example and of course the Roma brought the guitar to Europe) and the European genes they have picked up on the way – and return home forever to Mother India

  7. Michele Mandrioli
    March 18, 2016, 9:26 pm

    My siblings and I have an average of about ½% “South Asia” in our DNA results, which shows up as India on the map. Since our known ancestry is ~50% N. Italian, ~25% French, ~12.5% Irish and ~12.5% British Isles, I am assuming that the ½% “South Asia” is probably Roma, from the N. Italian part of our ancestry. Does anyone have any opinions on this?

  8. Ad van Herk
    January 11, 2016, 2:45 am

    Odd, all these conflicting remarks about “gypsy” where none are made about “rom”, “roma” or its variations.
    As far as I am aware this finds its origin in the Roman (Byzantine) empire in Anatolia and, therefore, relates to Rome and Romans,

  9. Theresa McGinniss Galloway
    United States- 1st generation 'Black irish"
    December 16, 2015, 11:04 pm

    My origin as ‘black irish’ being 1/4 Spanish/Portugese is well known family history. The dark ones were often left to marry each other, so be it ‘tinker’ or ‘gypsy’ get over the politically correct issue. Follow the empirical data, Roma descendants were probably part of the west coast of Ireland. Work on the maps.

  10. Marcin
    November 17, 2015, 4:13 am

    I know Dr. Ion Hancock. I know all arguments against call Roma “Gypsy”.
    I have huge respect for Dr. Ion Hancock. But you must remember that he represents only part of the Roma people and part of the scientists.
    E.g.: Dr. Ion Hanckok call the Roma Genocide during II World War – Porajmos, but for most of European Roma the properly name is – Samudaripen.

    Polish hooligans call: “Roma Go Home!” (Not “Gypsy Go Home!”).
    In Europe during last few years “Roma” has become as offensive as “Gypsy”.

    In truth magic rituals made with names work in two directions and are not able to change the word.
    But for the better world 😀 “we need remember that talking about contemporary ethnic group we MUST! call them “Roma” and “Romani people””. Gypsy is only historical group that came to Europe.

    The problem is our (non-Roma) attitude and our discrimination. Not only the name of the group.

  11. Stephen Stover
    Salem, Oregon
    November 9, 2015, 1:27 pm

    From the comments it appears actual Roma peoples do not object to being called ‘Gypsy’ and use that term both among themselves and with others. Conversely, non Roma people object to the term attempting to override the Roma culture and history with their personal prejudices.

  12. Cheryl
    November 1, 2015, 2:07 pm

    All of you can argue that “Gypsy” isn’t offensive. However, how many of you are actually of that origin? My adopted children are half Romani. When they were young, we lived next to a woman who was originally from Romania. Upon seeing my kids, her comment was, “They are Gypsy. They will steal from you.” There is an extreme hatred towards them. Contact Dr. Ion Hancock who is the UN & UNICEF representative for the Romani people. He will set all of you straight.

  13. Marcin
    October 31, 2015, 6:39 am

    We need remember that talking about contemporary ethnic group we MUST! call them “Roma” and “Romani people”.

    Therefore, all romologists talking about the historical group that came to Europe, use the term Gypsy (e.g. Angus Fraser and others).
    It is a very important distinction and only ideology can force us to use different terminology.

  14. C J Eastwood
    October 28, 2015, 3:39 am

    I am from a Romani family. Many Romani, if not a large majority, do not take offence at the use of the word “Gypsy”. It is far more offensive and also very damaging to our identity to misuse the term “Gypsy” for non-Romani groups. Example being ‘My Big Fat Gypsy Wedding’ in the UK which features Pavee (Irish Traveller) families and it then tells the naive British public that they are “Gypsy”.
    As for the word “Roma”, then that is only one branch of Romani centred Eastern Europe. Groups such as the Kale (often referred to as Gitanos, Cigani), Sinte & Romanichal of Western Europe do not call themselves as Roma. English Romanichal call Roma from Eastern Europe as ‘Roms’ as this is the equivalent using Englisg grammar. Romani is the collective term in English for Romani people. In the Romani language we would write this as Rromane or Romane as ‘e’ at the end is plural.

  15. GG
    October 26, 2015, 5:51 pm

    Kiri – I went school with ‘Romani’ and know quite a lot of them. I’ve never in my life heard one ‘Roma/ni’ to call another: ROMA.

    They always call one other ‘Gypsy’! at least in the Balkans…

  16. Yvonne Marshall
    Ottawa Canada
    October 26, 2015, 4:29 pm

    I wonder if this is why some Europeans have some Southeast Asian DNA. One study shows it as Southeast Asian and another identifies Balkan.

  17. Djole
    October 26, 2015, 4:13 pm

    In my town we have many Romani people and most of them refer to them self as gypsies. I dont see anything wrong with the therm gypsies…..

  18. Alin
    Brno, Czech Republic
    October 26, 2015, 3:26 pm

    Dear Kiri,

    A little info about the etymology of the word “gypsy”:

    Gypsy (n.) Look up Gypsy at Dictionary.com
    also gipsy, c. 1600, alteration of gypcian, a worn-down Middle English dialectal form of egypcien “Egyptian,” from the supposed origin of the people. As an adjective, from 1620s. Compare British gippy (1889) a modern shortened colloquial form of Egyptian.
    Cognate with Spanish Gitano and close in sense to Turkish and Arabic Kipti “gypsy,” literally “Coptic;” but in Middle French they were Bohémien (see bohemian), and in Spanish also Flamenco “from Flanders.” “The gipsies seem doomed to be associated with countries with which they have nothing to do”
    Source: http://www.etymonline.com/

    “Gypsy” is not derogatory, it’s just another name for the Romani.

  19. Kiri
    United States
    October 26, 2015, 1:02 pm

    Please, PLEASE don’t refer to the Romani people as ‘gypsies’! This is a derogatory term that implies the Roma are con-artists and thieves. The Roma were persecuted for centuries for being ‘gypsies’. Thank you!!

    • Miguel Vilar
      October 26, 2015, 2:30 pm

      Thank you for your comment. We removed the reference from the story.